Plant poisons, fungi and animal origin

Plant poisons, fungi and animal origin
Plant poisons, fungi and animal origin

Plants and some animals defend themselves from attacks by poisonous substances (toxins), which are usually stored in parts of the plant or organs. It is estimated that the man takes over with about 10 feeds. 000 plant substances per day about 1 g. Many of these substances are positive for cancer tests, some cause malformations or long-lasting organ damage, animal tests. It is not yet clear to what extent these results can be transferred to humans. Such toxins can be reduced by new growth methods, but also through proper storage and preparation.

Vegetable poisons Bitter almonds and fruit kernels contain hydrogen cyanide in the form of a glycosidic compound. Bacterial enzymes in the intestinal groove release hydrogen cyanide. It is resorbed, prevents cellular enzymes and paralyzes the energy intake of cells. The brain and heart are the most sensitive. In children, 5-10 bitter almonds can be deadly.

Sweet Almonds pose no risk. Compound hydrogen cyanide is also found in soybean buds, but also in flaxseeds. At boiling, they pass into the water. Cabbage contains isothiocyanates. These prevent the entry of iodine into the thyroid hormone.

In people with hypothyroidism, consumption of cabbage may cause the chicken to develop. Potatoes, but also other plants of the Solanaceae family, such as tomatoes and eggplants, form the solanaceous alkaloid. In potatoes, there is the most concentrated content of solanine in the leaves, the sprouted buds and the green portions of the shell. These must be removed before consumption. Poisoning is manifested by diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, but these have become rare today by better storage conditions (which prevent green staining and sprouting).

Some bean varieties contain lectin. These are extremely poisonous. Forms bonds with glycoproteins, destroys cell membranes and leads to a coagulation of red blood cells. 6 beans of Runner beans can lead to fatal bleeding of the intestine. At boiling, lectin is destroyed after 15 minutes.

Some vegetable foods are not borne by all consumers, but they are not poisonous. Here comes grain varieties that lead to local reactions in the intestines in some patients by gluten. In people who have a deficiency of phosphate dehydrogenated glucose anemia, consumption of grain leads to the destruction of red blood cells by lowering the level of glutathione. Mushroom poisoning Most of the edible mushrooms are grown today in mushrooms. As a rule, they are inoffensive.

The mushrooms must always be fresh because they otherwise provide a good environment for the appearance of bacteria. Poisoning occurs especially to amateur pickers when they confuse edible mushrooms with poisonous species. Other causes are poor preparation or storage as well as susceptibility to fungi. 90% of the mushroom poisoning is caused by the sponge of green viper, which is confused with the champignon mushroom. It contains two powerful poisons: foloidin interacts with actal filaments of liver cells and destroys them, while amatinin prevents repair mechanisms (synthesis of ribonucleic acid) and prevents the liver from recovering.

A single fungus can be deadly. Symptoms of poisoning occur at 8-24 hours after consumption in the form of aqueous chairs. The cause of death is liver failure. Spring beetle is part of the mushrooms that can be eaten only if they are properly prepared. Its poison, gyrometry, decomposes and evaporates if it boils twice.

If the fungus is not cooked properly, there are poisoning reactions in the form of vomiting and diarrhea at 2-24 hours after consumption. Animals poisoning The blowfish fish, a poisonous estrem, is a Japanese delicacy. The fish stores tetrodoxin poison mainly in the liver and ovaries. In preparation, these organs must be removed completely. Poisoning leads to itchy, rapid drop in tension and has a deadly effect within 15 minutes.

Source: Atlas of Nutrition, Authors Gaby Schwenk - Hauber and Michael Schwenk, RAO Publishers. .

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